Resident Research

The residency program requires residents to design, complete, and submit two research projects for publication in an academic journal of their choosing. Residents may research any topic of interest, retrospective, prospective or basic science in nature. We have full-time research faculty and receive NIH funding.

Upon completion of their intern year, residents are provided an outline for successful completion of research requirements. Prior to initiation, residents are encouraged to identify a faculty mentor who will provide guidance and monitor progress throughout the projects completion. Two months during the PGY-3 year and one month during the PGY-4 year are dedicated to research activities. All research activities have a mentor and are supervised by the research committee consisting of Thomas Gal, PhD; Mark Fritz, MD; Matthew Bush, MD; and Jennifer Shinn, PhD.

The primary objective of resident research is to submit papers for publication in peer-reviewed journals. Additionally, residents are encouraged to submit their work for presentation at national meetings. The Department of Otolaryngology – HNS will cover travel and accommodation expenditures for any resident following acceptance of their research to a national meeting.

The Department of Otolaryngology believes that resident research is an integral part of developing future leaders, clinicians, and scientists in the specialty of otolaryngology. As such, considerable resources have been invested in recent years into developing the resident research experience.  Heavy input from current residents has assisted in the development of an enjoyable research curriculum and methodology.

Recent Publications and Presentations


Meinhardt G, Perez N, Sharrer C, Ratmeyer P, Van Maele N, Robinson L, Adkins D, Schuh M, Bush ML. The Role of Telemedicine for Evaluation and Management of Dizzy Patients: A Systematic Review. Otol Neurotol. 2023

Leader PW, Oyler DR, Carter TM, Damron DS, Lee CY, Sloan DA, Inabnet WB 3rd, Randle RW. Opioid-Free Thyroid and Parathyroid Operations: Are Patients Satisfied With Pain Control? Am Surg. 2023

Nix E, Willgruber A, Rawls C, Kinealy BP, Zeitler D, Schuh M, Bush M. Readability and Quality of English and Spanish Online Health Information about Cochlear Implants. Otol Neurotol. 2023

Thiel C, Gupta N. Remote Versus In-Person Interview Experience of American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Fellowship Applicants in the COVID-19 Era. Facial Plast Surg Aesthet Med. 2023


C. Thiel, N. Gupta. “Remote Versus in Person Interview Experience of American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Fellowship Applicants in the COVID-19 Era.” Facial Plastic Surgery and Aesthetic Medicine (accepted manuscript).

Nix, E., Willgruber, A., Rawls, C., Kinealy, B.P., Zeitler, D., Schuh, M., & Bush, M.L. (2022). Readability and quality of English and Spanish online health information about cochlear implants. Otology & Neurotology, submitted

Wieser ME, Fluty LG, Comer BT; Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis – Surgical Management; in Rhinologic and Sleep Apnea Surgical Techniques; (in progress); 2nd edition

Trott S, Young R, Hayden C, Yessin O, Bush M, Gupta N. Risk Factors for Operating Room No-Show in an Academic Otolaryngology Practice. Laryngoscope. 2022

Beydoun AS, Koss K, Nielsen T, Holcomb AJ, Pichardo P, Purdy N, Zebolsky AL, Heaton CM, McMullen CP, Yesensky JA, Moore MG, Goyal N, Kohan J, Sajisevi M, Tan K, Petrisor D, Wax MK, Kejner AE, Hassan Z, Trott S, Larson A, Richmon JD, Graboyes EM, Wood CB, Jackson RS, Pipkorn P, Bruening J, Massey B, Puram SV, Zenga J. Perioperative Topical Antisepsis and Surgical Site Infection in Patients Undergoing Upper Aerodigestive Tract Reconstruction. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2022

Gupta N, White H, Trott S, Spiegel JH. Observer Gaze Patterns of Patient Photographs Before and After Facial Feminization. Aesthet Surg J. 2022

Gilley, D. R., Clark, A. D., Wieser, M. E., Bollig, C. A., Dooley, L. M., & Biedermann, G. B. (June 2022). Effectiveness of gabapentin in reducing opioid requirements after radiation in head and neck cancer in a single institution. Head & neck, 44(6), 1368–1376. PMID: 35315549   DOI: 10.1002/hed.27035

Ruffin, W.C., Crouch, J.B., Burruss, C.P. and Bush, M.L. (May 2022), Sociodemographic Factors and Health Care Utilization in Pediatric Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media. The Laryngoscope.

Longino ES, Landeen KC, Wessinger BC, Kimura KS, Davis SJ, Shastri KS, Stephan SJ, Patel PN, Yang SF. Trends in Maxillofacial Trauma During COVID-19 at a Level 1 Trauma Center. Ear Nose Throat J. 2022

Wieser, M. E., Sagalow, E., Givens, A., Curry, J. M., Galloway, T. L., & Tassone, P. T. (April 2022). Occult Metastases During Salvage Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Free Flaps: Oncologic Outcomes PMID: 35380881 DOI: 10.1177/01945998221090920

Rayle C, Bethel C, Mangino A, Elsheikh M, Suiter D, Ismail B, Fritz M. Ineffective Esophageal Motility: A Truven Database Review.  Podium presentation at the Combined Otolaryngology Spring Meeting. April 2022.

Michael B. Mullen, M.D., Tony Nesta, B.S., PharmD, Christopher J. McLouth, Ph.D., Mark A. Fritz, M.D. Impact of Vocal Fold Augmentation Procedures on Pneumonia Rates. Podium Presentation. at the Combined Otolaryngology Spring Meeting. April 2022

Kimura K*, Wessinger B, Freeman M, Das S, Esther C, Kimple A, Boucher R, Turner J. Impact of Saline Irrigations on Covid-19. Podium presentation at the Combined Otolaryngology Spring Meetings. April 2022.

Harper JL, Slade E, Kejner A, Continuous non-invasive near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in free tissue reconstruction of the head and neck [Poster Presented]. AOHNS Combined Otolaryngology Spring Meeting 2022/ Dallas TX, USA.

Batey, C. Thiel, M. Bush, and N. Gupta. “An Evaluation of Factors Influencing Clinician Time Spent with Patients.” AAO–HNSF Annual Meeting 2022, Philadelphia, PA. Accepted

C. Thiel and N. Gupta. “Remote Versus in Person Interview Experience of American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Fellowship Applicants in the COVID-19 Era.” Poster Combined Otolaryngology Springs Meetings 2022, Dallas, TX. April 27, 2022.

Pappal, Robin & Ali, Syed & Fritz, Mark & Harryman, Christopher & Witt, Michael. Risk Factors for Development of Subglottic and Tracheal Stenosis in Patients Intubated in the Medical ICU.  Poster presentation at COSM 2022

Wieser, M. E., Dooley, L. M., Galloway, T. L., Zitsch, R. P., & Tassone, P. T. (March 2022). Safety of the “incidental” neck dissection or exploration during free tissue transfer after head and neck irradiation. American Journal of Otolaryngology.  PMID: 34999350  DOI: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2021.103347

Patil, S., Wieser, M., Chen, C., Nelson, T. B., Holliday, Z., & Roland, W. (January 2022). Acute Salmonella typhimurium Aneurysmal Aortitis with Bacteremia, Pneumonia, and Thoracic Aortic Dissection in an Elderly Male. Cureus14(1), e21431.   PMID: 35223220   DOI: 10.7759/cureus.21431

Shilts MH, Rosas-Salazar C, Strickland BA, Kimura KS, Sehanobish E, Freeman MH, Wessinger BC, Gupta V, Brown HM, Boone HH, Asad M, Patel V, Barbi M, Bottalico D, O’Neill M, Akbar N, Rajagopala SV, Mallal S, Phillips E, Turner JH, Jerschow E, Das SR.  Severe Covid-19 is Associated with an Altered Upper Respiratory Tract Microbiome. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. January 2022

Esther CR Jr, Kimura KS, Mikami Y, Edwards CE, Das SR, Freeman MH, Strickland BA, Brown HM, Wessinger BC, Gupta VC, Von Wahlde K, Sheng Q, Huang LC, Bacon DR, Kimple AJ, Ceppe AS, Kato T, Pickles RJ, Randell SH, Baric RS, Turner JH, Boucher RC. Pharmacokinetic-based failure of a detergent virucidal for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) nasal infections: A preclinical study and randomized controlled trial. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. January 2022.

Kam S, Angaramo S, Antoun J, Bhatta MR, Bonds PD, Cadar AG, Chukwuma VU, Donegan PJ, Feldman Z, Grusky AZ, Gupta VK, Hatcher JB, Lee J, Morales NG, Vrana EN, Wessinger BC, Zhang MZ, Fowler MJ, Hendrickson CD. Improving annual albuminuria testing for individuals with diabetes. BMJ Open Qual. January 2022.

Wieser, M. E., Gilley, D. R., May, J. G., & Rivera, A. L. (January 2022). A Rare Case of a Middle Ear Glomangioma. SAGE Open Medical Case Reports.   PMID: 35024149 DOI: 10.1177/2050313X211070520


White, S.W., Bock, J.M., Blumin, J.H., Friedland, D.R., Adams, J.A., Tong, L., Osinski, K., Luo, J., “Analysis of Socioeconomic Determinants in Laryngology Clinic Utilization for Treatment of Dysphonia.” Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol (December 2021). Pubmed ID: 35155799

Leader PW, Oyler DR, Carter TM, Damron DS, Lee CY, Sloan DA, Inabnet WB 3rd, Randle RW. Opioid-Free Thyroid and Parathyroid Operations: Are Patients Satisfied With Pain Control? Am Surg. 2021 Nov 3:31348211048846. doi: 10.1177/00031348211048846.  PMID: 34732084.

Piccillo, Em. Adkins, D. Elkrakhawy, M. and Carr, MM. Cricopharyngeal Myotomy in National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP): Complications for Otolaryngologists Versus Non-otolaryngologists. Cureus. October 2021

Schultz JD, Rees AB, Wollenman LC, McKeithan LJ, Tadepalli VR, Wessinger BC, Gay JC, Martus JE, Moore-Lotridge SN, Schoenecker JG. Factors That Drive the Annual Variation in Pediatric Elbow Fracture Occurrence and Severity. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. October 2021

Clark, C.A. & Nakamoto, K. & Bown, P. (2021). Traumatic Diaphragmatic Rupture and the Delayed Presentation of a Pericardial Hernia. ACS Case Reviews in Surgery. In press

Rayle C, Batey K, Fritz M. Early Intervention in Posterior Glottic Stenosis.  Podium presentation at The Fall Voice Conference, San Diego, CA,  October 2021.

Trott, S., Young, R., Bush, M., Gupta, N. Risk Factors for Operating Room No-Show in an Academic Otolaryngology Practice. Podium presentation at the 125th AAO-HNSF 2021 Annual Meeting. October 2021. Los Angeles, CA.

Kinealy, B.P., Namin, A.W, Zitsch, R.P. III, & Rivera, A.L. (2021). Intraoperative radiography: A valuable, effective, and timely tool in transoral sialolith excision. Journal of the American Medical Association, Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery (to be submitted). Oral Presentation: American Head and Neck Society Annual Meeting, Virtual, September 2021.

July O’Brien, K, Kebede, H, Gupta N, Patel, A, Porterfield JZ. Risk Factors Associated with Short-and Long-Term Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Rhinoplasty Using Polydioxanone Plates. Virtual poster presentation at the American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, September 2021.

Chou, D. W., Staltari, G., Mullen, M., Chang, J., & Durr, M. (August 2021). Otolaryngology Resident Wellness, Training, and Education in the Early Phase of the COVID-19 Pandemic. The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology130(8), 904–914.

Trott, S., Lehmkuhl, B., Lei, F., Mao, X., Christian, W., Kejner, A.

Geographic Variation of HPV-Associated Cancer Incidence in Kentucky using Spatial Scan Statistics. Presented at the American Head & Neck Society’s 10th International Conference on Head and Neck Cancer. July 2021. Presented Virtual.


Craker NC, Gal TJ, Wells L, Schadler A, Pruden S, Aouad RK. Chronic Opioid Use after Laryngeal Cancer Treatment: A VA Study. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2020 Apr;162(4):492-497. doi: 10.1177/0194599820904693. Epub 2020 Feb 25. PMID: 32093569.

Mahairas AD, Neff RCraker N, McNulty BN, Shinn JB, Bush ML. Trends in Opioid Usage Following Tympanoplasty and Mastoidectomy. Otol Neurotol. 2020 Sep;41(8):e1035-e1040. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000002709. PMID: 32558746.

Gal TJ, O'Brien KJ, Chen Q, Huang B. Clinical vs Microscopic Extranodal Extension and Survival in Oropharyngeal Carcinoma in the Human Papillomavirus Era. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2020 May;162(5):693-701. doi: 10.1177/0194599820910431. Epub 2020 Mar 10. PMID: 32151208.

Van Horn A, Hayden C, Mahairas AD, Leader P, Bush ML. Factors Influencing Aberrant Facial Nerve Stimulation Following Cochlear Implantation: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Otol Neurotol. 2020 Sep;41(8):1050-1059. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000002693. PMID: 32558747.

O'Brien KJ, Snapp KR, Dugan AJ, Westgate PM, Gupta N. Risk Factors Affecting Length of Stay in Patients with Deep Neck Space Infection. Laryngoscope. 2020 Sep;130(9):2133-2137. doi: 10.1002/lary.28367. Epub 2019 Nov 25. PMID: 31763702.


Gal TJ, Slezak JA, Kejner AE, Chen Q, Huang B. Treatment trends in oropharyngeal carcinoma: Surgical technology meets the epidemic. Oral Oncol. 2019 Oct;97:62-68. doi: 10.1016/j.oraloncology.2019.08.007. Epub 2019 Aug 14. PMID: 31421473.

Thiel C, Yang J, Crawley B, Krishna P, Murry T. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Syllable and Sentence Productions in Normal Speakers. J Voice. 2019 May;33(3):297-301. doi: 10.1016/j.jvoice.2017.11.016. Epub 2018 Jan 8. PMID: 29326024.

Neff RM, Jicha G, Westgate PM, Hawk GS, Bush ML, McNulty B. Neuropathological Findings of Dementia Associated With Subjective Hearing Loss. Otol Neurotol. 2019 Oct;40(9):e883-e893. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000002381. PMID: 31498297.

Dhanireddy B, Burnett NP, Sanampudi S, Wooten CE, Slezak J, Shelton B, Shelton L, Shearer A, Arnold S, Kudrimoti M, Gal TJ.Am J Otolaryngol. 2019 Jun 4. pii: S0196-0709(19)30186-3. doi: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2019.06.001. [Epub ahead of print]Outcomes in surgically resectable oropharynx cancer treated with transoral robotic surgery versus definitive chemoradiation.

Fletcher KT, Dicken FW, Adkins MM, Cline TA, McNulty BN, Shinn JB, Bush ML.Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2019 Jul;161(1):63-66. doi: 10.1177/0194599819835541. Epub 2019 Mar 5 Audiology Telemedicine Evaluations: Potential Expanded Applications.


Fletcher KT, Horrell EMW, Ayugi J, Irungu C, Muthoka M, Creel LM, Lester C, Bush ML. Otol Neurotol. 2018 Aug;39(7):854-864. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000001861. The Natural History and Rehabilitative Outcomes of Hearing Loss in Congenital Cytomegalovirus: A Systematic Review.

Noblitt B, Alfonso KP, Adkins M, Bush ML.  Otol Neurotol. 2018 Jun;39(5):e307-e313. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000001777. Barriers to Rehabilitation Care in Pediatric Cochlear Implant Recipients.

Alfonso KPKaufman M, Aouad R. Are Difficult Tracheostomies the ‘Standard’ for Otolaryngologists? American Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Medicine and Surgery 2018.


Bush M, Kaufman M, McNulty B. Disparities in Access to Pediatric Hearing Healthcare. Current Opinion in Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery 2017. - Read More Here

Bush M, Kaufman M, Shackleford T. Compliance in the Cancer Care Setting: A Systematic Review of Patient Navigation to Traverse Treatment Barriers. Journal of Cancer Education. 2017


Barnett M, Hixon B, Okwiri N, Irungu C, Ayugi J, Thompson R, Shinn J, Bush M. Factors Involved in Access and Utilization of Adult Hearing Healthcare: A Systematic Review. Laryngoscope. 2016 Aug; 127: 1187-1194.

Gal TJ, Hixon B, Zhang P. Transoral Robotic Resection of a Combined Laryngocele. J Robotic Surg. 2016 Dec.

Hixon B, Chan S, Adkins M, Shinn J, Bush M. Timing and Impact of Hearing Healthcare in Adult Cochlear Implant Comparison. Otol Neurotol. 2016 Oct; 37 (9): 1320-4

Hixon B, Chan S, Adkins M, Shinn J, Bush M. Assessment of rural adult hearing health disparities-access to care in cochlear implantation. Poster Presentation, 2016 Triological Society Combined Sections Meeting, Miami, FL. Podium Presentation, 2016 International Conference on Cochlear Implants, Toronto, Canada.

Chan S, Hixon B, Shinn J, Bush M. Hearing loss in rural adults: A geographic comparison of access to care in hearing aid recipients. Poster Presentation (SC), 2016 Triological Society COSM, Chicago, IL.

Fiorillo CE, Bush M, Studts T. Assessing and Addressing Behavioral Problems in Children with Hearing Loss. Presented at the 2015 UK Research Symposium.

Fiorillo CE, Hughes AL, Westgate PM, Gal TJ, Bush ML, Comer BT. Factors Associated with No-Show Rates in an Academic Otolaryngology Practice. Presented Apr 16, 2016 at the KSO meeting in Louisville and 2016 UK Research Symposium

Alfonso KP, Aouad R. Are Difficult Tracheostomies the ‘Standard’ for Otolaryngologists?
Podium Presentation, American Academy of Otolaryngology Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, Fall 2016.  

Alfonso KP, Comer, BT. Audible sphenoid-sellar fistula: An unusual complication of transphenoidal surgery. The Laryngoscope, Jan 2016.  Also presented at the American Academy of Otolaryngology Annual Meeting, Dallas, TX, Fall 2015.

Alfonso KP, Younes A. The Eight Year Nasal Foreign Body: A Case Report. Inter J Otorhinolaryngology, 2015

Kaufman, MR, Gal T. Submental Island Flap Reconstruction in Previously Irradiated Patients. Podium presentation at the American Academy of Otolaryngology Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, Fall 2016