• Fritz Lower, MD
  • Virgilius Cornea, MD
  • Eun Lee, MD
  • William O’Connor, MD
  • Nathan Shelman, MD


All transplant biopsies are evaluated and graded according to standardized criteria established by the Banff Allograft Pathology Foundation and the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.

Routine staining for C4d is performed on kidney and heart allograft biopsies and on an as needed basis for liver, lung, and pancreas allograft biopsies to assist in the evaluation of antibody mediated rejection. Preliminary findings are communicated to the ordering provider with a final report issued upon completion of the evaluation.


First-year medical students receive a lecture on transplant immunopathology provided by Dr. Fritz Lower.

Pathology residents may take a transplant pathology elective lasting one month which allows them to see a variety of solid organ transplant biopsies, learn about histocompatibility testing, and attend a variety of transplant patient care meetings.